Editing Exercises Instructions
Editing Exercise â€“ Proper APA and References Part I
This part of the Exam has two sections: 1) In-Text Citations and 2) References Page. Your grade will based upon the proper APA formatting of citations and listing of references.
Section 1: In-Text Citations
The following excerpt and references page from a research paper contain errors in grammar, formatting in-text citations, and listing of sources. Using APA format, correct the errors. You will need to refer to the list of sources provided in Section 2 to correct the in-text citations. You may use an APA handbook or the APA section of the Writing Center. Corrections of the in-text citations should be made after any incorrect citations. Correct only the in-text citations.
Disjuncture in Service: Are We Leaving Delinquent Girls Behind?
Female juvenile delinquency has historically been ignored both in theory and in practice. Recent growth in the number of girls being arrested in the United States has garnered media fascination with the purported new generation of â€œbad girlsâ€ and has resulted in greater numbers of young women being incarcerated. Evidence suggests that in many instances these girls face harsh sentences as their behavior is considered alarming and abnormal (Girls, Chesney-Lind and Shelden, 1998, p. 20; Corpus Christi, Wise, 1999). In an article for the Corpus Christi Caller-Times, Wise (1999) quoted Marsha Levick, an attorney with the Juvenile Law Center in Philadelphia, as saying:
There’s still kind of a shock value at having these girls display this type of behavior. They’re more likely to face detention and confinement because the system feels a greater need to intervene and fix it. But the system doesn’t do it well, because it doesn’t recognize [female juveniles] as a distinct population with distinct needs. (Corpus Christi, Wise, 1999, C5.)
Girls remain on the periphery of mainstream criminological inquiry, and in juvenile justice practice the unique circumstances and needs of this growing population have been virtually ignored. Acknowledging this disjuncture for the first time, the United States Congress initiated hearings in 1992, as part of the reauthorization of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (1992), to address the specific issues regarding girls within the juvenile justice system and the need for gender-specific programming. While recent studies have begun to shed light on guiding principles and promising models for working with female juvenile offenders (â€œDefusing the Time Bomb,â€ 1998 Chesney-Lind, 2001), very little information exists on female delinquency programs currently operating or the effectiveness of the services that they provide.
Historically, delinquency and juvenile justice research has rarely focused on female offenders. The major criminological explanations of delinquent behavior set forth during the first three-quarters of the 20th Century primarily focused on male offenders. Goodstein and Renzetti have noted that â€œwhen gender was considered in criminological theory, it was often as a â€˜variableâ€™ in the testing of theories devised to explain boysâ€™ behavior and delinquencyâ€ (p. 29). Theorists such as Thrasher (1927), Sutherland (1929), Merton, and Shaw and McKay set the tone for male-based criminological inquiry. â€œThe silence about girls in trouble has meant that the serious problems bringing them into the system have also been ignored or trivializedâ€ (â€œWomen, Crime and Justiceâ€ p. 27).
Recent research has begun to document the characteristics of young female offenders (Belknap, 1997; Chesney-Lind & Shelden, 1998; Acoca, 1998). Many problems facing girls in the juvenile justice system parallel those faced by boys (Chesney-Lind). It is not surprising to find that both delinquent girls and boys confront multiple obstacles including lack of education, impoverished and crime-ridden neighborhoods, gang violence, lack of employment opportunities, and structural inequalities (Ibid). There are however differences in the types and degrees of factors influencing the lives of girls and boys, as well as differences in their reactions to these life events. The problems facing girls and boys may in part be similar, but â€œthey take on special dimensions as a result of the way gender works in the lives of young womenâ€ (Chesney-Lind, p. 38).
Section 2: References Page
Correctly format a references page using this information. You may use an APA handbook or the APA section of the Writing Center.
A newspaper article that appeared in the Corpus Christi Caller-Times written by Lindsay Wise on July 8, 1999 that was entitled â€œBrutal Attack Highlights Crimes by Females: Society Learning to Adjust to Crimes by Teen-Age Girlsâ€ found on page C5.
An article in Crime and Delinquency from volume 44, number 1 called â€œDefusing the Time Bomb: Understanding and meeting the growing health care needs of incarcerated women in Americaâ€ on pages 49â€“69 written by Leslie Acoca in 1998.
An article by Joanne Belknap published in 1997 in volume 77, number 4 of the Prison Journal entitled â€œUnderstanding Incarcerated Girls: The Results of a Focus Group Studyâ€ on pages 381â€“405.
An article by Meda Chesney-Lind published in the February-March 2001 edition of the magazine Corrections Today entitled â€œWhat about the girls? Delinquency Programming as if gender matteredâ€ on pages 381â€“405.
An article by Robert K. Merton published in 1938 in volume 3 of the journal American sociological review entitled â€œSocial Structure and Anomieâ€ on pages 672 through 682.
A book published in 1942 by the University of Chicago Press in Chicago, Illinois that was written by Clifford Shaw and Henry D. McKay entitled â€œJuvenile delinquency and urban areas.â€
A book published in 1924 by J.B. Lippincott in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania that was written by Edwin H. Sutherland and entitled Criminology.
A book published in 1927 by the University of Chicago Press in Chicago, Illinois that was written by Frederic M. Thrasher and entitled The gang.
A book published in 1998 by Wadsworth Publishing Company in Belmont, California written by Randall Shelden and Meda Chesney-Lind entitled Girls, Delinquency and Juvenile Justice.
A book published in 2001 by Roxbury Publishing Company in Los Angeles written by Lynne Goodstein and Claire M. Renzetti entitled Women, Crime, and Justice: Contemporary Perspectives.
The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act as reauthorized in 1992 and found in the United States Code, Title 42, Section 5633.