attached please find presentation of article 1 2 and exam 1 2

EXAM 1

This exam has a total of 10 points. Each point corresponds to a numbered question. The numbered question is to be answered. The correct answer to a numbered question will give you one point. If the answer is partially correct, partial credit will be given as a decimal value. If the answer is incorrect, no credit will be given. If the question is unanswered, no credit will be given so it is better to guess than to leave a question blank. The number of points earned will be divided by the total number of points on the exam and multiplied by 100 to get your grade. Good luck!

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “Aquatic habitats are particularly dynamic because factors including depth [3], suspended sediment [4], and dissolved organic matter can alter underwater light quality [5].” Why is depth dynamic in aquatic habitats? (1 point)

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “The life history of fish typically includes metamorphosis from a larval stage to one or more juvenile stages before reaching adult sexual maturity. Between these stages, many marine fish migrate to new light environments, which requires changes in visual function [9-16].” Why would fish migrate to new light environments during their life history? (1 point)

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “Retinal change is thought to occur in anticipation of or in concert with shifts in habitat [17 -21], the outcomes of which can be strongly influenced by changes in light exposure over life history [e.g., 22].” What are these habitats? (1 point)

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “Major storms, eutrophication events, and other natural and anthropogenic disturbances occur over short time-scales and can result in acute and often dramatic shifts in the intensity and spectrum of underwater light [29, 30]. These kinds of disturbances may have profound effects on the abilities of fish to feed, avoid predators, engage conspecifics, and ultimately survive.” Why do these disturbances have profound effects on the abilities of fish to feed, avoid predators, and engage conspecifics? (1 point)

  1. In the retinal response to light conditions section of the discussion section the authors wrote “Over time, fish in the ‘red’ condition became more sensitive to long-wavelength light than fish in the ‘blue’ condition.” Which figure shows fish in the ‘red’ condition became more sensitive to long-wavelength light than fish in the ‘blue’ condition over time? (1 point)

  1. How do you know that your answer to question 5 is correct? (1 point)

  1. In the retinal response to light conditions section of the discussion section the authors wrote “Fish held in the bright light condition required twice the irradiance to produce the same retinal response as fish held in the dim light condition.” Why did fish held in the bright light conditions require twice the irradiance to produce the same retinal response as fish held in the dim light conditions? (1 point)

  1. In the conclusion section the authors wrote “Natural and anthropogenic disturbances to marine habitats (e.g., algal blooms caused by eutrophication and storm-induced turbidity changes) can lead to significant and rapid changes in the intensity and spectrum of underwater light [29, 30].” Compare the intensity of light in algal blooms to turbidity. (1 point)

  1. How do you know that your answer to question 8 is correct? (1 point)

  1. In the conclusion section the authors wrote “Natural and anthropogenic disturbances to marine habitats (e.g., algal blooms caused by eutrophication and storm-induced turbidity changes) can lead to significant and rapid changes in the intensity and spectrum of underwater light [29, 30].” Compare the spectrum of light in algal blooms to turbidity. (1 point)

EXAM 2

This exam has a total of 27 points. Each point corresponds to a numbered question. The numbered question is to be answered. The correct answer to a numbered question will give you one point. If the answer is partially correct, partial credit will be given as a decimal value. If the answer is incorrect, no credit will be given. If the question is unanswered, no credit will be given so it is better to guess than to leave a question blank. The number of points earned will be divided by the total number of points on the exam and multiplied by 100 to get your grade. Good luck!

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “In the Indian subcontinent, for instance, 149 species, belonging to 75 genera were found living in mangroves [4], while over a hundred species are known to colonize mangroves of the peninsular Malaysia [5].” How can there be 149 species but only 75 genera? (1 point)

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “This rather diverse crab fauna exhibits some degrees of spatial segregation that is often related to intertidal zones, similarly to what can be observed on less spatially complex intertidal habitats [6, 7].” What is this “spatial segregation that is often related to intertidal zones” called/known as? (1 point)

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “In addition, most of these few studies dealt only with the fiddler crabs, genus Uca sensu lato [14], whose distribution patterns are thought to be controlled by their differential resistance to high temperatures [11, 15-17] and by their morphological specialization for deposit-feeding, resulting in a substratum-dependent spatial segregation [10, 18, 19].” Based on this quote would you expect crabs to be found closer to the water to the water or further away from the water? (1 point)

  1. Why did you give the answer that you gave for question 3? (1 point)

  1. What words quoted in question 3 are evidence that your answer to question 3 is correct? (1 point)

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “Observations on species distribution and spatial segregation along the forest, coupled with data on their feeding preferences, suggested a strong correlation betweenthe presence of some major litter consumers, such as the crabs of the Indo-Pacific genus Neosarmatium, and the presence of their preferred trees [6, 7].” Is the correlation that was mentioned positive, negative, or non-existent? (1 point)

  1. How do you know that your answer to question 6 is correct? (1 point)

  1. What words in the quote of question 6 are evidence that that your answer to question 7 is correct? (1 point)

  1. Why are the words in your answer to question 8 evidence that your answer to question 8 are correct? (1 point)

  1. In the background section the authors wrote In this view, the patterns of tree distribution present in various part of the Indo-Pacific region was hypothesized to be the principal drivers of sesarmid crab distribution.” Is this hypothesis a null hypothesis or an alternate hypothesis? (1 point)

  1. What one word in the quote of question 10 is evidence that your answer to question 10 is correct? (1 point)

  1. Why did you choose this word as an answer to question 11? (1 point)

  1. In the background section the authors wrote “In mangroves, in fact, many closely related species live in sympatry, share the same activity windows, have access to the same litter food resource (i.e. leaf litter) and indirectly and directly compete, at intra- and inter-specific level, for food [21, 41].” Which words reveal/define sympatry in this quote? (1 point)

  1. How do you know that your answer to question 13 is correct? (1 point)

  1. In the study area and experimental sites section of the methods section the authors wrote “Crab species of genera Neoarmatium and Muradium feed on fallen leaves, collect them and store litter into their burrows, enhancing the carbon sink function of mangrove forests soils [31].” How do crabs enhance the carbon sink function of mangrove soils? (1 point)

  1. In the feeding experiments and behavioral observations on crab species section of the methods section the authors wrote “During each observation session, two different observes, placed up on the trees or behind the Thalassina anomala mounds not to disturb the crabs, recorded the following data: (1) the time at which each leaf was collected by a crab, (2) the crab species collecting the leaf, (3) every intra- and interspecific encounter and conflict, (4) the species of the crabs involved in the encounter, (5) the final winner, and (6) the total number of crabs observed.” Which of the quoted numbers are exploitation competition? (1 point)

  1. How do you know that your answer to question 16 is correct? (1 point)

  1. Which of the quoted numbers in question 16 are interference competition? (1 point)

  1. How do you know that your answer to question 18 is correct? (1 point)

  1. In the characterization of abiotic factors and biotic assemblages at the two experimental sites section of the results section the authors wrote “The total tree cover was also different between the two intertidal belts, with the FF more shaded than the ELF.” Why was FF more shaded than ELF? (1 point)

  1. In the characterization of abiotic factors and biotic assemblages at the two experimental sites section of the results section the authors wrote “The total abundance of crab species was significantly higher at ELF than in the FF …” Why is this unexpected? (1 point)

  1. If the total abundance of crab species is higher at ELF, why is N. smithi dominant at FF? (1 point)

  1. Based on your answer to question 22, why is the total abundance of crab species highest at ELF? (1 point)

  1. In the feeding experiments and behavioral observations on crab species section of the results section the authors wrote “The feeding activity N. smithi, N. asiaticum, and N. malabaricum wre evenly distributed along the 24 h in both the sites showing no temporal segregation among the species activity (Table 1).” What does “showing no temporal segregation” mean? (1 point)

  1. In the feeding experiments and behavioral observations on crab species section of the results section the authors wrote “At the ELF (i.e. the densest site) we recorded a higher number of agonistic interactions than on the FF (82 and 39, respectively; Table 3). Moreover, at the ELF we observed fights involving all pairs of species present in the area, while on the FF intra-specific interactions were infrequent and some species pairs never interacted (Table 3).” Why did ELF have the higher agonistic interactions and fights than FF? (1 point)

  1. In the discussion section the authors wrote “A reasonable explanation comes from the strong interference competition recorded during our feeding experiments with a noticeable highest aggressiveness and dominance showed by N. smithi towards the other litter-feeding species.” Describe this aggressiveness and dominance by N. smithi. (1 point)

  1. In the discussion section the authors wrote “We, thus, suggest that the lower limit of zonation for N. asiaticum, N. malabaricum and M. tetragonum within our study area was primarily set by the competition for food with N. smithi.” What can be done to prove N. smithi sets the lower limit for N. asiaticum, N. malabaricum and M. tetragonum? (1 point)


 

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